International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types: (1) bilateral investment agreements and (2) investment agreements. A bilateral investment agreement (BIT) is an agreement between two countries on the promotion and protection of investments made by investors of the countries concerned in the territory of the other country. The vast majority of AIIs are BITs. The category of contracts with investment rules (TIPs) includes different types of investment agreements that are not NTBs. Three main types of PNT can be distinguished: 1. global economic contracts, which contain obligations usually found in THE ILO (e.g. B a free trade agreement with an investment chapter); (2) contracts with limited investment provisions (e.g. B only those relating to the creation of investments or the free transfer of investment funds); and 3. Contracts that contain only “framework clauses”, such as. B cooperation on investments and/or mandates for future investment negotiations. In addition to AIIs, there is also an open category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It includes several binding and non-binding instruments, such as model agreements and drafts, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organizations and others.
On 24 January 2003, the European Union (EU) concluded a financial agreement with ECCAS and CEMAC, subject to the merger of ECCAS and CEMAC into an organization, with ECCAS being responsible for the peace and security of the subregion through its COPAX security pact. Cemac is not one of the pillars of the African Economic Community, but its members are linked to it by the Economic Community of Central African States. The EU has carried out several peacekeeping missions in the DRC: Operation Artemis (June to September 2003), EUPOL Kinshasa (from October 2003) and EUSEC RD Congo (from May 2005). It was officially replaced by CEMAC in June 1999 (by 1994 Convention). Cemac is currently managing a customs and monetary union. The common market exists, but there are still many exceptions to the duty-free regime. UNCTAD`s work programme on international investment agreements (IIAs) actively assists policy makers, government officials and other IIA stakeholders in reforming IIAs to make them more conducive to sustainable development and inclusive growth. International investment regimes operate at the bilateral, regional, interregional and multilateral levels. Policymakers, negotiators, civil society and other stakeholders need to be well informed about foreign direct investment, international investment agreements (IIAs) and their impact on sustainable development. Main objectives of UNCTAD`s IIA work programme • Reform of the international investment agreement (IIA) regime to improve its sustainable development dimension; • Comprehensive analysis of key issues arising from the complexity of the international investment regime • Development of a wide range of instruments to support the formulation of a more balanced international investment policy.
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