National qualifications frameworks have been adopted by many English-speaking countries in the Commonwealth of Nations that have structured their tertiary education in a neoliberal market, such as New Zealand, Scotland, Australia, South Africa, England and Ireland. They can also be taken into account in Kintzer`s typology, as people created in New Zealand and South Africa are compulsory and more favourable to certain sectors of Scotland, Ireland and Australia (Young, 2005: 12) and almost voluntary. Some argue that a qualification framework is part of the neoliberal agenda, as it commercialises education and thus contributes “to the creation of education markets by providing a common qualification currency. This common currency is seen, like money in an economy, as an incentive for increased competition among degree providers, because all institutions recognize and reward learning in the same way” (Strathdee, 2003: 157). But even in countries that have heavily commercialized their higher education, such as New Zealand, Australia and, to a lesser extent, England, national qualifications frameworks are encouraged to minimise barriers to vertical and horizontal transfer and to “maximise access, flexibility and portability between different fields of teaching and work and different places of learning” (Young, 2003 : 224). However, there is relatively little evidence that national qualifications frameworks achieve these goals (Young, 2005: 1). Note. Maintaining the anonymity of the taxpayer until an agreement is reached is essential. Therefore, the tax advisor should at no time inform the tax officer of the identity of the taxpayer until an acceptable agreement has been fully negotiated and accepted by the taxable person. Interstate Tax Strategies has a proven model of cooperation with states to facilitate comparison agreements with the VDA. We work with your company to find out how you can best address the states and minimize the tax debt due. Our techniques and revenue tax overview in multiple states have saved customers taxpayers` money through the VDA process. Contact us for a free and confidential conversation about your company`s tax situation VDA@salestaxstrategies.com.
Two final examples illustrate the continued economic relevance of this “voluntary” policy. First, let`s look at the price commitment that the EU has negotiated with China regarding the import of solar modules. At that time, it was an important trade event from the Chinese point of view, since solar modules accounted for 7% of china`s total exports to the EU in 2012.bk Secondly, although VER are not used frequently at present, they were only used in a major industry in 2008. Following the expiry of the MFA in 2005, the US and the EU quickly negotiated a number of ESCs for Chinese exports of textiles and clothing to their markets for the period 2005-08.bl In 23 countries, the legal framework provided for a revision of prices based on the EPR. Regular reviews have also taken place in Denmark and Ireland, but they are based on a voluntary agreement between public funding bodies and the pharmaceutical industry and not on legislation. Countries with revision or monitoring legislation had fixed dates or fixed intervals ranging from 1 month to 5 years. Of the 26 countries that carried out price monitoring and revisions, 18 conducted this exercise regularly, the others on specific occasions. The duration of the intervals ranged from 3 months to even 5 years. In some cases, regular price monitoring or revisions are associated with certain medicines: in Norway, the prices of 250 substances, which accounted for about three-quarters of the reimbursement market in terms of value, were revised annually, and in Spain and Ireland, the prices of non-patented medicines were regularly updated once a year.
Five countries (Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, Germany and Hungary) reported that they did not have regular intervals for price revisions. .